It can be used to obtain complete enumeration through a legal requirement.
September 17, What To Know for Statistics Introduction When faced with a research problem, you need to collect, analyze and interpret data to answer your research questions. Examples of research questions that could require you to gather data include how many people will vote for a candidate, what is the best product mix to use and how useful is a drug in curing a disease.
In this article, we will explore various types of data, methods of data collection and advantages and disadvantages of each.
After reading our review, you will have an excellent understanding of when to use each of the data collection methods we discuss. Types of Data Quantitative Data Data that is expressed in numbers and summarized using statistics to give meaningful information is referred to as quantitative data.
Examples of quantitative data we could collect are heights, weights, or ages of students. If we obtain the mean of each set of measurements, we have meaningful information about the average value for each of those student characteristics. Qualitative Data When we use data for description without measurement, we call it qualitative data.
Examples of qualitative data are student attitudes towards school, attitudes towards exam cheating and friendliness of students to teachers. Such data cannot be easily summarized using statistics. Primary Data When we obtain data directly from individuals, objects or processes, we refer to it as primary data.
Quantitative or qualitative data can be collected using this approach. Such data is usually collected solely for the research problem to you will study. Primary data has several advantages. First, we tailor it to our specific research question, so there are no customizations needed to make the data usable.
Second, primary data is reliable because you control how the data is collected and can monitor its quality. Third, by collecting primary data, you spend your resources in collecting only required data.
Finally, primary data is proprietary, so you enjoy advantages over those who cannot access the data. Despite its advantages, primary data also has disadvantages of which you need to be aware. The first problem with primary data is that it is costlier to acquire as compared to secondary data.
Obtaining primary data also requires more time as compared to gathering secondary data. Secondary Data When you collect data after another researcher or agency that initially gathered it makes it available, you are gathering secondary data.
One advantage to using secondary data is that it will save you time and money, although some data sets require you to pay for access. A second advantage is the relative ease with which you can obtain it. You can easily access secondary data from publications, government agencies, data aggregation websites and blogs.
A third advantage is that it eliminates effort duplication since you can identify existing data that matches your needs instead of gather new data.
Despite the benefits it offers, secondary data has its shortcomings. One limitation is that secondary data may not be complete. For it to meet your research needs, you may need to enrich it with data from other sources.
A second shortcoming is that you cannot verify the accuracy of secondary data, or the data may be outdated. A third challenge you face when using secondary data is that documentation may be incomplete or missing. Therefore, you may not be aware of any problems that happened in data collection which would otherwise influence its interpretation.
Another challenge you may face when you decide to use secondary data is that there may be copyright restrictions. Methods Employed in Primary Data Collection When you decide to conduct original research, the data you gather can be quantitative or qualitative.
Generally, you collect quantitative data through sample surveys, experiments and observational studies. You obtain qualitative data through focus groups, in-depth interviews and case studies.
We will discuss each of these data collection methods below and examine their advantages and disadvantages. Sample Surveys A survey is a data collection method where you select a sample of respondents from a large population in order to gather information about that population.
The process of identifying individuals from the population who you will interview is known as sampling. To gather data through a survey, you construct a questionnaire to prompt information from selected respondents.
When creating a questionnaire, you should keep in mind several key considerations. First, make sure the questions and choices are unambiguous. Second, make sure the questionnaire will be completed within a reasonable amount of time.
Finally, make sure there are no typographical errors.CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESEARCH: METHODS Those interested in the study of criminology and criminal justice have at their disposal a wide range of research methods.
Which of the particular research methods to use is entirely contingent upon the question being studied. Research questions typically fall into four categories . Data Collection Methods: What To Know for Statistics A survey is a data collection method where you select a sample of respondents from a large population in order to gather information about that population.
The process of identifying individuals from the population who you will interview is known as sampling. useful for the students studying courses in Statistics, Research methodology, Business, Extension/5(11).
The accuracy of quantitative data can be influenced by manipulation and bias of the researcher, among other factors, unless checked by the researcher’s professionalism and the use of accepted data collection research methods.
Methods of Data Collection Storage Retrieval and Analysis Background from CJ at Kaplan University. Find Study Resources. Main Menu; Methods of Data Collection, Storage, Retrieval, TAGS Criminal Justice. The Nation’s Two Crime Measures and gun use in crime. The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data at the University of Michigan archives the NCVS data files to enable researchers to perform independent analyses.
the two programs share many similarities. As much as their different collection methods permit, the two measure .