Share lectures with video before class, and dedicate class time to activity and discussion. At first, the flipped classroom sounds fairly straightforward. Looking closer, however, it soon becomes clear that from this basic premise springs many unique and interesting forms. Most surprising in all those examples?
Flipped Classroom The flipped classroom approach has been used for years in some disciplines, notably within the humanities. Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson promoted the use of this approach in their book Effective Grading They propose a model in which students gain first-exposure learning prior to class and focus on the processing part of learning synthesizing, analyzing, problem-solving, etc.
To ensure that students do the preparation necessary for productive class time, Walvoord and Anderson propose an assignment-based model in which students produce work writing, problems, etc.
Walvoord and Anderson describe examples of how this approach has been implemented in history, physics, and biology classes, suggesting its broad applicability. Inverted Classroom Maureen Lage, Glenn Platt, and Michael Treglia described a similar approach as the inverted classroom, and reported its application in an introductory economics course in Lage, Platt, and Treglia initiated their experiment in response to the observation that the traditional lecture format is incompatible with some learning styles.
To help ensure student preparation for class, students were expected to complete worksheets that were periodically but randomly collected and graded.
Class time was then spent on activities that encouraged students to process and apply economics principles, ranging from mini-lectures in response to student questions to economic experiments to small group discussions of application problems.
Both student and instructor response to the approach was positive, with instructors noting that students appeared more motivated than when the course was taught in a traditional format.
Peer Instruction Eric Mazur and Catherine Crouch describe a modified form of the flipped classroom that they term peer instruction Like the approaches described by Walvoord and Anderson and Lage, Platt, and Treglia, the peer instruction PI model requires that students gain first exposure prior to class, and uses assignments in this case, quizzes to help ensure that students come to class prepared.
Class time is structured around alternating mini-lectures and conceptual questions. After discussion, students answer the conceptual question again. The instructor provides feedback, explaining the correct answer and following up with related questions if appropriate. The cycle is then repeated with another topic, with each cycle typically taking minutes.
Mazur and colleagues have published results suggesting that the PI method results in significant learning gains when compared to traditional instruction He found that students taught with interactive engagement methods exhibited learning gains almost two standard deviations higher than those observed in the traditional courses 0.
Assessment of classes taught by the PI method provides evidence of even greater learning gains, with students in PI courses exhibiting learning gains ranging from 0.
Interestingly, two introductory physics classes taught by traditional methods during the assessment period at Harvard show much lower learning gains 0. Carl Wieman and colleagues have also published evidence that flipping the classroom can produce significant learning gains Deslauriers et al.
Wieman and colleagues compared two sections of a large-enrollment physics class. The classes were both taught via interactive lecture methods for the majority of the semester and showed no significant differences prior to the experiment.
Although class discussion was supported by targeted instructor feedback, no formal lecture was included in the experimental group.
The control section was encouraged to read the same assignments prior to class and answered most of the same clicker questions for summative assessment but were not intentionally engaged in active learning exercises during class.
Although the authors did not address retention of the gains over time, this dramatic increase in student learning supports the use of the flipped classroom model. Theoretical basis How People Learn, the seminal work from John Bransford, Ann Brown, and Rodney Cocking, reports three key findings about the science of learning, two of which help explain the success of the flipped classroom.
By providing an opportunity for students to use their new factual knowledge while they have access to immediate feedback from peers and the instructor, the flipped classroom helps students learn to correct misconceptions and organize their new knowledge such that it is more accessible for future use.
What are the key elements of the flipped classroom? Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure prior to class. The mechanism used for first exposure can vary, from simple textbook readings to lecture videos to podcasts or screencasts.
For example, Grand Valley State University math professor Robert Talbert provides screencasts on class topics on his YouTube channelwhile Vanderbilt computer science professor Doug Fisher provides his students video lectures prior to class see examples here and here.
Provide an incentive for students to prepare for class. In all the examples cited above, students completed a task associated with their preparation…. The assignment can vary; the examples above used tasks that ranged from online quizzes to worksheets to short writing assignments, but in each case the task provided an incentive for students to come to class prepared by speaking the common language of undergraduates: In many cases, grading for completion rather than effort can be sufficient, particularly if class activities will provide students with the kind of feedback that grading for accuracy usually provides.
Provide a mechanism to assess student understanding. The pre-class assignments that students complete as evidence of their preparation can also help both the instructor and the student assess understanding.
If automatically graded, the quizzes can also help students pinpoint areas where they need help. Importantly, much of the feedback students need is provided in class, reducing the need for instructors to provide extensive commentary outside of class Walvoord and Anderson, In addition, many of the activities used during class time e.
Provide in-class activities that focus on higher level cognitive activities. If the students gained basic knowledge outside of class, then they need to spend class time to promote deeper learning.
Again, the activity will depend on the learning goals of the class and the culture of the discipline.It was just like being taught in a class & it was beneficial to be able to rewind the video if I missed anything.” (Narration and Description Essay 1 and Literary Analysis Essay 2 What is the flipped classroom and flipped learning?
How to create a flipped classroom;. Flipped Classroom Being Beneficial Essay - According to Flipped Classroom – The Results 85% of students that have a flipped classroom have seen their grades improve (Flipped Classroom – The Results).
Having a flipped classroom is doing homework in class and watching videos at home. The videos are based off lessons that are made by the teachers. The Flipped Classroom A concept that has become popular is the "flipped classroom." A flipped classroom is a form of learning in which students watch a short video clip as a homework assignment at their own pace.
The student can communicate with teachers . Here are some of the most important things to think about when dealing with the use of technology in the classroom. or making a more dramatic change such as a flipped classroom, being well-versed in technology can age makes it even easier — from copying-and-pasting someone else’s work to hiring an essay-writer from an online essay.
Share lectures with video before class, and dedicate class time to activity and discussion. At first, the flipped classroom sounds fairly straightforward.. Looking closer, however, it soon becomes clear that from this basic premise springs many unique and interesting forms.
Exploring the Effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom The use of the flipped classroom has the potential to be an effective and beneficial method of education. Replacing direct instruction (the explicit scripted presentation or (being able to solve problems in creative and unique ways) and cooperation (familiarity with working with.