Posted on 13 February by Ron Conte There are three fonts of morality intention, moral object, circumstances. In order for any knowingly chosen act to be moral, all three fonts must be good. If an act has an evil moral object, then that act is intrinsically evil and always immoral.
Subjects[ edit ] Justification focuses on beliefs.
This is in part because of the influence of the definition of knowledge as " justified true belief " often associated with a theory discussed near the end of the Plato's dialogues Meno and Theaetetus. More generally, theories of justification focus on the justification of statements or propositions.
The subject of justification has played a major role in the value of knowledge as "justified true belief". Some contemporary epistemologists, such as Jonathan Kvanvig assert that justification isn't necessary in getting to the truth and avoiding errors.
Kvanvig attempts to show that knowledge is no more valuable than true belief, and in the process dismissed the necessity of justification due to justification not being connected to the truth. Explanation and Argument Justification is the reason why someone properly holds a beliefthe explanation as to why the belief is a true one, or an account of how one knows what one knows.
In much the same way arguments and explanations may be confused with each other, as may explanations and justifications. Statements that are justifications of some action take the form of arguments.
For example, attempts to justify a theft usually explain the motives e. It is important to be aware when an explanation is not a justification. A criminal profiler may offer an explanation of a suspect's behavior e. An uncritical listener may believe the speaker is trying to gain sympathy for the person and his or her actions, but it does not follow that a person proposing an explanation has any sympathy for the views or actions being explained.
This is an important distinction because we need to be able to understand and explain terrible events and behavior in attempting to discourage it. Theories of justification generally include other aspects of epistemology, such as knowledge. Popular theories of justification include: Epistemic coherentism — Beliefs are justified if they cohere with other beliefs a person holds, each belief is justified if it coheres with the overall system of beliefs.
Externalism — Outside sources of knowledge can be used to justify a belief. Foundationalism — Basic beliefs justify other, non-basic beliefs. Foundherentism — A combination of foundationalism and epistemic coherentism, proposed by Susan Haack Infinitism — Beliefs are justified by infinite chains of reasons.
Internalism — The believer must be able to justify a belief through internal knowledge. Reformed epistemology — Beliefs are warranted by proper cognitive function, proposed by Alvin Plantinga. Skepticism — A variety of viewpoints questioning the possibility of knowledge truth skepticism — Questions the possibility of true knowledge, but not of justified knowledge epistemological skepticism — Questions the possibility of justified knowledge, but not true knowledge Evidentialism — Beliefs depend solely on the evidence for them.
Justifiers[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message If a belief is justified, there is something that justifies it, which can be called its "justifier".As for the justification of action, the objectivist can deny that the actions of agents who act in ignorance or guided by a mistaken belief are justified.
Whether the action is justified, the objectivist will say, depends purely on whether the facts make it the right thing to do, and not on the agent’s beliefs. The belief that a war can exist which is completely just, has been around for many centuries.
Philosophers have argued since the time of Cicero on how actions can be justified, and have written many papers on the subject. Aug 02, · 'Actions' means the manner or method by which something is done or accomplished.
Put them all together, and it means that you can prove that something you did is correct and/or reasonable, by thought and common r-bridal.com: Resolved.
Can Terrorism Ever Be Justified. Some exceptions to this are surely easy to justify - e.g. the actions of the French resistance to German occupation in World War II, . As for the justification of action, the objectivist can deny that the actions of agents who act in ignorance or guided by a mistaken belief are justified.
Whether the action is justified, the objectivist will say, depends purely on whether the facts make it the right thing to do, and not on the agent’s beliefs. If P is justified, then another belief Q may be justified by P. If P is not justified, then P cannot be a justifier for any other belief: neither for Q, nor for Q's negation.