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What we have are largely notes, written at various points in his career, for different purposes, edited and cobbled together by later followers.
The style of the resulting collection is often rambling, repetitious, obscure, and disjointed. There are many arcane, puzzling, and perhaps contradictory passages. Some familiarity with Greek terminology is required if one hopes to capture the nuances in his thought.
Classicists and scholars do argue, of course, about the precise Greek meaning of key words or phrases but many of these debates involve minor points of interpretation that cannot concern us here.
Many good translations of Aristotle are available. Parenthetical citations below include the approximate Bekker number the scholarly notation for referring to Aristotelian passages according to page, column, and line number of a standard editionthe English title of the work, and the name of the translator.
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Ancient commentators regarded logic as a widely-applicable instrument or method for careful thinking. These books touch on many issues: But we cannot confine our present investigations to the Organon.
Aristotle comments on the principle of non-contradiction in the Metaphysics, on less rigorous forms of argument in the Rhetoric, on the intellectual virtues in the Nicomachean Ethics, on the difference between truth and falsity in On the Soul, and so on. We cannot overlook such important passages if we wish to gain an adequate understanding of Aristotelian logic.
Categories The world, as Aristotle describes it in his Categories, is composed of substances—separate, individual things—to which various characterizations or properties can be ascribed.
Each substance is a unified whole composed of interlocking parts.
There are two kinds of substances. A primary substance is in the simplest instance an independent or detachable object, composed of matter, characterized by form.
Individual living organisms—a man, a rainbow trout, an oak tree—provide the most unambiguous examples of primary substances.
Secondary substances are the larger groups, the species or genera, to which these individual organisms belong. So man, horse, mammals, animals and so on would be examples of secondary substances.
Aristotle elaborates a logic that is designed to describe what exists in the world. We may well wonder then, how many different ways can we describe something?
In his Categories 4. In the Topics I. We can, along with Aristotle, give an example of each kind of description: Commentators claim that these ten categories represent either different descriptions of being or different kinds of being.Aristotle: Logic.
Aristotelian logic, after a great and early triumph, consolidated its position of influence to rule over the philosophical world throughout the Middle Ages up until the 19 th Century. All that changed in a hurry when modern logicians embraced a new kind of mathematical logic and pushed out what they regarded as the antiquated and clunky method of syllogisms.
In mathematics, the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.
For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. math, mathematics, maths - a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement inverse, opposite - something inverted in sequence or character or effect; "when the direct approach failed he tried the inverse".
Negation Sometimes in mathematics it's important to determine what the opposite of a given mathematical statement is. This is usually referred to as "negating" a statement. The problem with this approach is that the exact shape of the Earth is not a simple mathematical shape, such as a sphere or oblate spheroid, at the level of precision required for defining a standard of length.
"≡" means "equal by definition. Inversely proportional means that one variable goes up while the other goes down. Directly proportional means that both variables increase or decrease at the same time. ex: The volume of a gas at.